Architecture


Architecture
   The decades after the Civil War saw the rise of the opera house as a venue to attract more fashionable people than those who would attend the traditional theatre. While a theatre could be anything from a barn to a third-floor hall above commercial space, the opera house was specifically built for respectable entertainments. The seating for up to 2,000 people in different sections at various price scales created a kind of social segregation. Often there was a separate box office and side entrance for the cheap gallery seats above the more fashionable balconies. Early opera houses had flat auditorium floors (so that the facility could also be rented for balls) and raked stages. By 1900, most opera houses were built with raked auditorium floors (allowing some visibility above the large hats worn by women) and flat-floor stages.
   The opera houses built in towns across the nation tended to devote more space to amenities for the audience—lobbies, refreshment rooms, ladies' parlors, smoking rooms—than did those in New York where square footage was more costly. Each decade brought refinements in ventilation, lighting, fire-prevention devices (sprinklers or "inundators," asbestos curtain, additional exits), actor dressing rooms (eventually with fixed washstands), and scenery and equipment. Few theatres, either in New York or elsewhere, contained their own scene shops; exceptions were Booth's Theatre (1869-1883) and Daniel Frohman's Lyceum Theatre. A number of innovations may be credited to Steele MacKaye at his Madison Square Theatre, which he remodeled in 1879. Leading theatre architects and firms during the modernist period included John Eberson, Thomas Lamb, J. B. McElfatrick and Sons, Herbert J. Krapp, and Henry B. Herts. Opera houses continued to be built outside New York until the 1890s, but then yielded place to somewhat more intimate theatres in the 1900s and 1910s. New York saw many new theatres constructed throughout the 1920s.
   See also Parquette; Theatre fires.

The Historical Dictionary of the American Theater. .

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  • architecture — [ arʃitɛktyr ] n. f. • 1504; lat. architectura 1 ♦ L art de construire les édifices. L architecture, art plastique. Règles, technique de l architecture. ⇒ architectonique. Projet d architecture. Architecture militaire (⇒ fortification) , civile,… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • architecture —    Architecture in Spain is an area of great complexity, exemplifying the idiosyncrasies of each region and their distinctive histories, rather than displaying common national characteristics. While Andalusia and the Basque country, for example,… …   Encyclopedia of contemporary Spanish culture

  • architecture — ar‧chi‧tec‧ture [ˈɑːktektʆə ǁ ˈɑːrktektʆər] noun [uncountable] 1. the style or design of a building: • modern architecture 2. the study and practice of planning and designing buildings: • Stirling went to Trinity College to study architecture.… …   Financial and business terms

  • architecture — ARCHITECTURE. s. fém. L art de construire, disposer et orner les édifices. Ancienne et moderne Architecture. Architecture Gothique. Les cinq Ordres d Architecture. Chef d oeuvre d Architecture. f♛/b] On appelle Architecture Militaire, L art de… …   Dictionnaire de l'Académie Française 1798

  • architecture — Architecture. s. f. L Art de bastir. Ancienne & moderne architecture. architecture gothique. architecture Arabesque. les cinq Ordres d architecture. chef d oeuvre d architecture. Il signifie aussi, La disposition & l ordonnance d un bastiment.… …   Dictionnaire de l'Académie française

  • Architecture — Ar chi*tec ture (?; 135), n. [L. architectura, fr. architectus: cf. F. architecture. See {Architect}.] 1. The art or science of building; especially, the art of building houses, churches, bridges, and other structures, for the purposes of civil… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • architecture — architecture, architectonics and their corresponding adjectives architectural and architectonic are often indistinguishable, but they tend to diverge in emphasis. The nouns mean the science of planning and building structures (as churches, houses …   New Dictionary of Synonyms

  • architecture — [är′kə tek΄chər] n. [Fr < L architectura: see ARCHITECT] 1. the science, art, or profession of designing and constructing buildings, bridges, etc. 2. a building, or buildings collectively 3. a style of construction [Gothic architecture] 4.… …   English World dictionary

  • architecture — ARCHITECTURE: Il n y a que quatre ordre d architecture. Bien entendu qu on ne compte pas l égyptien, le cyclopéen, l assyrien, l indien, le chinois, le gothique, le roman, etc …   Dictionnaire des idées reçues

  • architecture — (n.) 1560s, from M.Fr. architecture, from L. architectura, from architectus architect (see ARCHITECT (Cf. architect)) …   Etymology dictionary

  • architecture — [n1] design of buildings architectonics, building, construction, engineering, planning; concepts 349,439 architecture [n2] design, structure of something composition, constitution, construction, formation, framework, make up, style; concepts… …   New thesaurus


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